What is Diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes is when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the cells cannot use insulin effectively. Insulin is a hormone that your pancreas gland produces to regulate the amount of glucose (a type of sugar) in your blood. Diabetes can lead to high glucose levels (often called “blood sugar”) in your blood.
There is no cure for diabetes. However, lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) and treatment can help. Diabetes must be treated promptly. High blood sugar levels can cause damage to body organs and tissue.
You may feel overwhelmed by all the information you need to absorb if you’ve recently been diagnosed with diabetes. It would help if you took the time to learn what a diabetes diagnosis means for you and your health. It will become easier to manage the medications, lifestyle changes, and test results that you need. Talking with your diabetes team is key to living with diabetes. Fildena 100 helps the body convert carbohydrates into usable energy.
Millions of Americans are affected by diabetes, which continues to rise yearly.
- Diabetes affects more than 34 million Americans or 10.5% of the nation’s population.
- About 7.3 million Americans with diabetes are not yet diagnosed.
- Prediabetes is a condition in which there are 90 million Americans with prediabetes.
- 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes each year.
- Different racial/ethnic groups are affected by diabetes in the United States. Adults of American Indian/Alaska Native and Hispanic heritage, as well as adults from Black and Asian backgrounds, are more likely to be affected than those who are white.
- Nearly 27% have diabetes in 65-year-olds.
What are the Different Types Of Diabetes?
There are many types of diabetes. The three main ones are type 1 diabetes (or gestational diabetes), type 2 diabetes (or gestational diabetes), and type 1. Each type of diabetes is different and has its causes and consequences. They all have one thing in common: an inability to manage blood sugar.
Type 1 Diabetes (previously known as juvenile diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetic)
Type 1 diabetes is when the body’s immune system misunderstood destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (beta). A person’s body cannot produce enough insulin. This can lead to blood sugar levels that are not controlled and may even become dangerously high. This type is only about 5% of people living with diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is most common in young adults and children but can also occur at any age.
Type 2 Diabetes (previously known as adult-onset diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetics)
Type 2 diabetes is when insulin resistance occurs in the cells. Insulin resistance causes uncontrolled blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is most common in those over 30 who are obese or overweight. This type of diabetes is more common in younger people due to increased fat and obese children and young adults.
Gestational diabetes can be a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. It can be caused by hormones or insufficient insulin. Although this type of diabetes is often temporary, it disappears after the termination of pregnancy. The chances of developing diabetes later in their lives are higher for children whose mothers form gestational diabetes in the womb.
What is Prediabetes?
Diabetes can occur suddenly, but most people experience prediabetes (or impaired glucose tolerance) before developing diabetes.
Prediabetes can be reduced by making lifestyle changes and being more active.
- If you have type 2 diabetes, it is important to include physical activity in your daily life.
- A lifestyle emphasizing healthy eating and low carbohydrate (sugars) can help you manage type 2 diabetes. This task can be handled by working with a registered dietitian who will help you create a personalized meal plan to help you lose weight.
What are the Signs of Diabetes?
Both type 1 and 2 people living with diabetes will share the same symptoms. Type 2 diabetes patients may not experience any symptoms.
- Increased thirst
- High blood sugar can cause increased urination, resulting from the kidneys converting more urine to glucose.
- Feeling very hungry
- Feeling tired
- It is possible to lose weight without trying (people with diabetes cannot absorb and use sugar-derived energy).
What is Diabetes?
A blood test and symptoms can help determine if someone has diabetes. Three types of blood tests are used to diagnose diabetes.
- Fasting glucose (sugar). Before blood is drawn, the person must not eat for at least eight hours. Diabetes is diagnosed when a result of 126 mg/dl (or higher) is obtained.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: This test measures a person’s fasting glucose (as described above). A 75g glucose-rich drink is given to the person. Two hours later, another measurement of blood sugar is taken. Diabetes is diagnosed when the blood sugar level is 200 mg/dl and higher.
- Hemoglobin (HbA1c): This blood test shows the average blood glucose for the past three months. Diabetes is diagnosed when the result is 6.5% or more.
Your diabetes care team will likely order a repeat blood test to confirm your diagnosis. Locate endocrine services in your local area.
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How is Diabetes Treated?
The best way to manage diabetes, primarily type 2, is to make lifestyle changes such as exercising more and eating healthier. It is essential to count the carbohydrate in your foods, as they can contribute to high blood sugar. Regular exercise is necessary because active muscles absorb sugar more efficiently than those not exercising. These lifestyle changes can be combined with type 1 and 2 diabetes medications.
Diabetes patients should also keep a stash of sugary drinks and candy if they experience hypoglycemia, which causes low blood sugar. Talk to your diabetes care team to learn how to prevent or prepare for a low-blood sugar emergency.
Type I diabetes
Type 1 diabetics must inject insulin because most of their insulin-producing cells have been destroyed when they’re diagnosed. You can deliver insulin with different methods, such as a pen, syringe, or continuous insulin pump. It is up to the individual and the diabetes care team to decide which way they prefer.
Type 2 diabetes
Changes in lifestyle, such as diet and exercise, are the essential treatment for type 2 diabetes patients. Medication may be necessary if lifestyle changes are not enough to control blood sugar. The individual’s needs and the cause of diabetes will determine the type of medication that is chosen.
For example, regenerating cells that produce insulin and transplanting them into a patient’s pancreas is one-way researchers are investigating. Researchers are also working on drugs called Amylin and incretins (already available). These treatments work complexly to improve the body’s response to insulin. Alternate ways to take insulin have been created (e.g., inhaled insulin) or are currently developing. Other types of research include studies that focus on immunosuppressants in type 1 diabetes.
Living With Diabetes
How can you be sure that your diabetes is under control? You and your diabetes team have several options to monitor your glucose levels.
- Your diabetes care team can get updates from the Continuous Glucose Monitoring system (CGM) if you have an insulin pump that has been paired with it.
- A glucose monitor can measure your blood sugar levels at home. This is a device that measures the amount of glucose in the blood. You can link the device to an app on your smartphone to monitor the measurements.
- The frequency at which you should check your glucose levels can vary from once a week to several times a day.
- Your diabetes care team should perform an HbA1c test at least once every three months. This test shows how well you have managed your glucose over the past few months.
- Normal HbA1c levels should not exceed 5.7%. Most people with diabetes should aim to achieve a lower level than 6.5%, but this should be adjusted for individual patient characteristics.
No matter how you monitor your glucose levels, it would help if you talked with your diabetes team about the options and your goals for blood glucose and HbA1c. If you use at-home devices to monitor your glucose levels, ask your team how often.
What are the Complications of Diabetes?
Due to the damage caused by diabetes on blood vessels, people with diabetes are more at risk for other conditions (often called “complications”). Diabetes management is crucial for preventing or delaying complications such as retinopathy (retinopathy), diabetic kidney disease, neuropathy (neuropathy), heart attacks, stroke, and diabetic nerve disease.
Good news! It has been proven that maintaining blood glucose at an average level can reduce the risk of developing diabetic retinopathy or kidney disease. A healthy lifestyle that includes managing your blood pressure and cholesterol can help lower your risk of heart attacks and stroke.
Here are some ways you and your diabetes team can monitor your health and look for potential complications.
- You should keep your blood glucose levels within normal limits and monitor them frequently.
- At least once per year, have your urine tested. Based on microalbumin levels in your urine, the results can help you determine if you have an early stage of kidney disease.
- These tests should be taken regularly.
- Every visit to your provider will include a blood pressure measurement.
- Levels of cholesterol and triglyceride (at least once per year)